Having more and more browsers supporting XMLHTTPRequest object to send the data to server and get the response from server without reloading the page, it is possible to refresh only a part of the page. There are various techniques to do this. One such technique is that the server send the XML back to the browser and the Javascript on the browser will convert the XML into HTML by creating the DOM nodes on the fly. This is useful but has some limitations.

* If the Javascript is turned off, there is no graceful degradation of application
* Since the Javascript is running on the browser (client side), changing the structure of the generated HTML is hard
* This is not feasible when HTML generated is complex

One can overcome these limitations by sending the HTML snippet in the response. Instead of sending the XML back to browser, generate the HTML on the server side itself. On the browser side, replace the content of the DOM node with the response HTML response from the server.

If the Javascript is turned off on the browser, user will see at least the content of the HTML on the browser instead of just the XML content. So there is a graceful degradation of service on the client side

If HTML generated need to be changed, application is not dependent on changing the Javascript and hoping that the client will reload the page and will get new Javascript. Even if the Javascript is changed, some web proxies may not pull the new Javascript, resulting in the browsers (clients) behind the proxies will continue to get the old Javascript and old HTML will get rendered.

There are various frameworks like Symfony, Django make it possible to generate the complex HTML possible with least effort. In case the request is not made via XMLHTTPRequest, it is possible to send the whole page (with header, footer etc.) in the response. If the request is made via XMLHTTPRequest object, send the response without the layout decoration (just the HTML snippet). Javascript running on client side will replace the content of the DOM node as required.

Take for example, there is an application where the page loaded has many graphics and only a part of the page changes when user take some action like filling a form for sending the email. It is absolutely unnecessary to generate the whole page again just for a simple action of sending an email. I will make an attempt to explain with the example of sending the feedback via a form embedded in the page. I will try to explain this with PHP Symfony framework and Javascript (AJAX).

The URL for the page is /new-page. This page has a feedback form in it. The action of this form is handled by /feedback. Server side code for /feedback expect a form having a text content, sends an email to the product manager and send same page as new-page but replacing the form with thank you note.

Below is a code for the new-page action.

Code for new-page response.

Now is the magic of jQuery Javascript library to submit the content to /feedback url and use the response content to replace the HTML form.

Server side code for handling the post from the browser to /feedback

HTML response from /feedback

In Symfony framework it is possible disable/enable the layout during run-time via setLayout() method of sfAction instance. Setting the parameter to false will disable the layout and send only the content of the action template back to the caller.

There you go.. A simple way to improve the usability of the site even without Javascript support.

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