I came across this performance issue in Erlang while doing the pattern matching against the mailbox [a.k.a. selective message processing]. Here is the orignal code:

-module (perf).

-export( [start/0] ).

start() ->
S = erlang:now(),
Pids = spawn_n(fun test/1, 10000, []),
E = erlang:now(),
io:format( "Total time: ~p~n", [timer:now_diff(E, S)/1000] ).

spawn_n(_F, 0, Acc) -> Acc;
spawn_n(F, N, Acc) ->
Me = self(),
Pid = spawn(fun() -> F(Me) end),
spawn_n(F, N-1, [Pid|Acc]).

test(Pid) -> Pid ! {self(), ok}.

wait([]) -> ok;
wait([Pid|Pids]) ->
receive {Pid, ok} -> ok end,

Run time for perf:start() was 1.3 seconds

Erlang (BEAM) emulator version 5.6.5 [smp:2] [async-threads:0] [hipe] [kernel-poll:false]

Eshell V5.6.5 (abort with ^G)
1> perf:start().
Total time: 1368.038

Now I changed wait(Pids) to wait(lists:reverse(Pids)). After this change, run time for perf:start() was 83 milliseconds.

1> perf:start().
Total time: 83.037

15x improvement just by changing the way mailbox scan is done.

Little things like this are usually overlooked and the language is blamed for the performance issues.